Thinking for ourselves, forming our own beliefs, and speaking about them openly, are fundamental human rights. But when the opinions of some have the potential to cause permanent damage to our planet, and threaten the lives of millions, that’s a different matter altogether.
Much intelligent debate has occurred in recent years with regards to the volumes of scientific data which indicate that increased levels of CO2 in the atmosphere, rising air and sea temperatures, and increased acidification of the oceans, could result in unwanted, and potentially devastating changes to our climate.
But some of this discourse has moved beyond rational conversation and has instead targeted science itself and those in the scientific community. In response to these attacks, 225 members of the US National Academy of Sciences have written a letter about climate change, and scientific theory, that should be read by all. The stakes are too high to ignore those who are devoting their lives to saving ours.
225 Scientists (including 11 Nobel laureates) Speak Out
We are deeply disturbed by the recent escalation of political assaults on scientists in general and on climate scientists in particular. All citizens should understand some basic scientific facts. There is always some uncertainty associated with scientific conclusions; science never absolutely proves anything. When someone says that society should wait until scientists are absolutely certain before taking any action, it is the same as saying society should never take action. For a problem as potentially catastrophic as climate change, taking no action poses a dangerous risk for our planet.
Scientific conclusions derive from an understanding of basic laws supported by laboratory experiments, observations of nature, and mathematical and computer modelling. Like all human beings, scientists make mistakes, but the scientific process is designed to find and correct them. This process is inherently adversarial— scientists build reputations and gain recognition not only for supporting conventional wisdom, but even more so for demonstrating that the scientific consensus is wrong and that there is a better explanation. That’s what Galileo, Pasteur, Darwin, and Einstein did. But when some conclusions have been thoroughly and deeply tested, questioned, and examined, they gain the status of “well-established theories” and are often spoken of as “facts.”
For instance, there is compelling scientific evidence that our planet is about 4.5bn years old (the theory of the origin of Earth), that our universe was born from a single event about 14bn years ago (the Big Bang theory), and that today’s organisms evolved from ones living in the past (the theory of evolution). Even as these are overwhelmingly accepted by the scientific community, fame still awaits anyone who could show these theories to be wrong. Climate change now falls into this category: there is compelling, comprehensive, and consistent objective evidence that humans are changing the climate in ways that threaten our societies and the ecosystems on which we depend.
Many recent assaults on climate science and, more disturbingly, on climate scientists by climate change deniers, are typically driven by special interests or dogma, not by an honest effort to provide an alternative theory that credibly satisfies the evidence. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and other scientific assessments of climate change, which involve thousands of scientists producing massive and comprehensive reports, have, quite expectedly and normally, made some mistakes. When errors are pointed out, they are corrected.
But there is nothing remotely identified in the recent events that changes the fundamental conclusions about climate change:
- The planet is warming due to increased concentrations of heat-trapping gases in our atmosphere. A snowy winter in Washington does not alter this fact.
- Most of the increase in the concentration of these gases over the last century is due to human activities, especially the burning of fossil fuels and deforestation.
- Natural causes always play a role in changing Earth’s climate, but are now being overwhelmed by human-induced changes.
- Warming the planet will cause many other climatic patterns to change at speeds unprecedented in modern times, including increasing rates of sea-level rise and alterations in the hydrologic cycle. Rising concentrations of carbon dioxide are making the oceans more acidic.
- The combination of these complex climate changes threatens coastal communities and cities, our food and water supplies, marine and freshwater ecosystems, forests, high mountain environments, and far more.
Much more can be, and has been, said by the world’s scientific societies, national academies, and individuals, but these conclusions should be enough to indicate why scientists are concerned about what future generations will face from business- as-usual practices. We urge our policymakers and the public to move forward immediately to address the causes of climate change, including the unrestrained burning of fossil fuels.
We also call for an end to McCarthy- like threats of criminal prosecution against our colleagues based on innuendo and guilt by association, the harassment of scientists by politicians seeking distractions to avoid taking action, and the outright lies being spread about them. Society has two choices: we can ignore the science and hide our heads in the sand and hope we are lucky, or we can act in the public interest to reduce the threat of global climate change quickly and substantively. The good news is that smart and effective actions are possible. But delay must not be an option.
Global Patriot supports the efforts of these scientists…their names follow.
• The signatories are all members of the US National Academy of Sciences but are not speaking on its behalf or on behalf of their institutions.
Adams, Robert McCormick, University of California, San Diego
Anderson, Wyatt W, University of Georgia
Bebbington, Anthony J, University of Manchester
Berlin, Overton Brent, University of Georgia
Briggs, Steven P, University of California, San Diego
Britten, Roy J, California Institute of Technology
Cairns, Jr John, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Canfield, Donald E, University of Southern Denmark
Cashmore, Anthony R, University of Pennsylvania
Chapin, III F, Stuart, University of Alaska
Coe, Michael D, Yale University
Croteau, Rodney B, Washington State University
Crothers, Donald M, Yale University
Crutzen, Paul J, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry
Dalrymple, Brent G, Oregon State University
Dangl, Jeffrey L, University of North Carolina
Davis, Margaret B, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis
De Camilli, Pietro V, Yale University School of Medicine
Diener, Theodor O, University of Maryland
Englander, Walter S, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine
Ferejohn, John A, Stanford University
Flannery, Kent V, University of Michigan
Garrett, Christopher J R, University of Victoria
Goodman, Corey S, venBio, LLC
Goodman, Morris, Wayne State University School of Medicine
Hake, Sarah, Agricultural Research Service
Hawkes, Kristen, University of Utah
Hayes, John M, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
Hout, Michael, University of California, Berkeley
Izquierdo, Ivan A, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul
Jagendorf, André T, Cornell University
Kay, Steve A, University of California, San Diego
Kirch, Patrick V, University of California, Berkeley
Klug, Sir Aaron, Medical Research Council
Kornberg, Sir Hans, Boston University
Kutzbach, John E, University of Wisconsin
Larkins, Brian A, University of Arizona
Levitt, Michael, Stanford University School of Medicine
Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer, National Institutes of Health
Lorand, Laszlo, Northwestern University
Marcus, Joyce, University of Michigan
Miles, Edward L, University of Washington
Morel, Francois M M, Princeton University
Nicoll, Roger A, University of California, San Francisco
O’Connell, James F, University of Utah
Ostrom, Elinor, Indiana University
Reichard, Peter A, Karolinska Institutet
Sabloff, Jeremy A, University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archeology and Anthropology
Sahlins, Marshall D, University of Chicago
Salmond, Anne, University of Auckland
Sanes, Joshua R, Harvard University
Simons, Elwyn L, Duke University Lemur Center
Singer, Maxine F, Carnegie Institution of Washington
Sleep, Norman H, Stanford University
Van Etten, James L, University of Nebraska
Walker, Alan, Pennsylvania State University
Wright, Jr Herbert E, University of Minnesota
Global Patriot would like to thank each of these scientists for speaking out!